Connect with us

Techopedia

You Still Think ‘O’ Blood Group Is A Universal Donor? Here Is Something That Will Make You Rethink.

universal donor
  • Researchers have discovered that a single enzyme present in human gut could transform any blood group into O.

  • They have been able to successfully convert the blood type A into a more accepted type which could be donated

  • If this process is applicable to all blood types, then this will revolutionize the blood compatibility and transfusion.

Every single day there are almost hundreds or thousands of people engaging in roadside accidents. And many of them die due to unavailability of perfect blood match. This luxury is becoming more and more of a problem as there are many lives at stake and very less people to donate. Many of us don’t donate more often which we must do but there arises this problem of blood transfusion and donor-recipient compatibility. A healthy person with the exact blood group as that of patient is not available at doorstep especially for a patient who has rare blood type like O- or B-, or AB-.

Thus, up till now we believed that blood group O is a universal donor and AB, the universal recipient but this concept is going to change as every blood type could become a universal donor.

Blood transfusions is a restricted process

According to ABO blood group system there exists four blood types namely A, B, AB, O. The blood group is specified dur to presence of specific antigen on the surface of Red Blood Cells. These antigens are like identification marker for any blood type and in case of blood group antigens, they are present at the time of birth and does not need any stimulus to activate them.

Now when we talk about blood transfusion, we must take account of blood antigens. The transfusion is only possible when the donor doesn’t have the recipient’s corresponding antibodies i.e. A blood group can be donated to only A recipient and vice versa. But type O blood group does not have any antigen therefore it is regarded as universal recipient. Thus, we come to a confusion that blood transfusion is restricted but O blood group can be donated in emergency situations because it is universal donor.

Blood group antigens

The blood group antigens are present on the surface of RBC. Well, they are not directly attached to the surface and this is the point to ponder. They are actually attached to a glycoprotein called substance this concludes that if we happens to eat the sugar, the antigens will be removed from the surface and we will get an RBC having type O phenotype like what happens in Bombay phenotype.

How the blood type can be converted to more universally accepted type

For more than 4 years, the researchers work on this concept and tried to develop an enzyme which could digest the protein sugar complex. They were able to convert the blood type A, but this had a little drawback as the process had a great expense and effort.

So, they keep improving the product when a team led by Stephen Withers, a biologist took a look at the gut bacteria. The bacterial enzymes present in gut are able to eat and digest the sugar present on substances. The mucin was similar to the glycoprotein complex present of on the surface of RBC which could be digested by gut bacteria.

Isolation of genes for bacterial enzymes

The biologists worked on human stool and was able to isolate the DNA which contains gene for the formation of bacterial enzymes. This was all based on hypothesis, now it was time to actually see if it works.

At first, it was not much of a success but then they were able to get two enzymes which were originally derived from the gut bacterium Flavonifractor Plautii. The enzymes were able to remove the sugar right off the surface of RBC. This is a turning point in the concept of transfusion which still needs work and a controlled experiment on humans.

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Techopedia

Depression, Men and Social Media…

depression
  • A recent study indicates that men expressing toxic masculine behaviors on social media are more likely to be highly depressed.

  • These men seek out negative interactions and display their depression as rage and aggression externally.

  • On the contrary, an easy first step in tackling depression in these men can be just to regulate the online presence to be more positive and optimistic.

A new study in town has put forward a disturbing finding i.e. the men who generally express toxic masculinity such as sexism, homophobia, competitiveness through the social media platform are more prone to be depressed in real life. The observations in the study focus on the relationship between toxic male tendencies, destructive online behaviors, and depression. Hence, it might be possible to bring these men out of their toxic selves, even though It may seem like they don’t want to seek out any help for themselves. Nevertheless, the only thing they have to do is focus on being more positive on social media.

So what exactly does the term “toxic masculinity” stand for? According to Michael Parent, a professor of psychology at the University of Texas, it represents anti-women attitudes which is paired with zero-sum thinking. He further stated that these characteristics of the mind were definitely co-related to negative online behaviors and finally increased depression.

There have been prior studies on the co-relation between depression and social media but their main point of focus has remained on the amount of time spent online instead of the type of usage. Toxic masculinity demands sheer dominance which is associated with rigidly defined gender roles and aggression and in turn makes itself prominent via social media and becomes linked to mental health problems. Parent’s study hypothesized that toxic masculinity forges a stronger bond between social media use and depression. The researchers conducted a study on 402 men who filled questionnaires centered on toxic traits and signs of depression.

It was also found that the men displaying toxic masculine traits were more likely to make efforts to find information that they didn’t agree with and then go after negative online interactions. It doesn’t end at that. These men keep pondering over these interactions even after they’re not using social media platforms. They exhibit more symptoms of depression and display aggression and rage externally.

On the contrary, positive social media usage such as browsing sites with optimistic messages and desirable interactions is linked to decreased levels of depression. Parent stated that it wasn’t an obvious connection between positive and negative online behaviors at the start of their study. But upon finding that out, it’s fascinating as to how easy it is to monitor and regulate social media behaviors to start to tackle deeply rooted depression.

It should be kept in mind that this study focuses on observing the correlation between toxic male tendencies, negative online presence, and depression but it does not, however, confirm that one is the reason the other occurs. And apart from the toxic masculinity theory, the general hypothesis that the people spending more time online are less content of their lives is still valid. So spending lesser and more positive time on social media is the key to higher levels of satisfaction with one’s life.

Continue Reading

Techopedia

Did You Know Bees Can Decode Symbols Into Numbers!?

Bees
  • Bees can relate a character to a particular quantity and in this way are going to establish a system of communication.

  • The discovery is made by the same team who first discovered that bees can sense zero and can do simple arithmetic.

  • This evolution in detecting numbers can be helpful in various fields of science from biotech to operating machine.

Bees are mostly studied because of their uncanny intelligence to sense things like they can hear or sense when there is a danger especially honeybees. They often move their honey from one place to another when they confront danger. Researchers have already discovered that bees can sense zero and can-do basic math which further confirms their importance in the field of technology. But recently a new sparking discovery has made regarding their intelligence and that is they can sense the symbols into numbers. Isn’t it a discovery that could make a revolution in several fields of science?

There is a famous saying that if bees were removed from the surface of Earth, man would have only four years to live. That is precisely true and with the advancement of technology, it seems that we are going to depend on them a little more.

Humans Are Not The Only Ones To Count Numbers

Researchers have trained bees to relate the symbols to some numerical value and believe me this discovery could lead to some serious change in the world of science. Associate Professor Adrian Dyer has put on some light on the fact that before this, humans were only able to detect numbers and are able to detect Arab numerical but now this same thing could be detected by the brain far little than man’s and we must find how n this era we can breach.

Humans have over 86 billion neurons and bees have less than a million but discovering that a million neurons can understand a complex thing like a human brain, it just opens up a whole another level of studying at a micro level.

Birds and primates have also shown signs of this technicality, but insects are the first ones in this era.

Non-Human Species Have Little Minds But A Great Potential

The recent studies on some animals have shown some amazing power of arithmetic like chimpanzees were able to learn Arabic numeral and can order them correctly while an AFRICAN bird named ALEX was able to learn numbers and can add them quite easily. The World just got amazing right!?

But this technique was not limited to vertebrates until now. Bees have become the center of attention as they are the tiniest creatures to able to do this type of thing.

The Bee Experiment

The bee experiment was conducted by Dr. Scarlett Howard, a former Ph.D., and a researcher. A Y- shaped maze was constructed to train the bees to match a character to a specific quantity. Then they were trained that if they could match a specific character to a specific quantity of same or different elements. They did it!

A second group was treated the opposite way that they were to track a quantity to its character. Then both the groups were tested in a reverse manner to know that they could develop a linkage between the concepts given to them.

The result showed that they are not at the same level as other animals, but they have a sense of quick learning ability to act upon the concept given to them. To know that a single million and tiniest brain could have this much sense of approach about such things is just the beginning of a new World of science.

Continue Reading

Techopedia

Are Programmers Utilizing AI for Noxious Expectations

AI

Cybersecurity experts are taking a gander at man-made reasoning (AI) with both eagerness and fear. From one perspective, it can possibly include completely new layers of protection for basic information and foundation, yet on the other, it can likewise be utilized as a ground-breaking weapon to foil those safeguards suddenly and completely.

Like any innovation, Artifical Intelligence(AI) has the two qualities to be utilized and shortcomings that can be misused. The test for the present security specialists is to keep one stage in front of the trouble makers, which should start with an unmistakable comprehension of precisely how AI can be utilized as a hostile information weapon.

Hacking AI

For a certain something, says Wired’s Nicole Kobie, we ought to perceive that, much the same as any information condition, AI itself can be hacked.

At the core of each shrewd procedure, there is a calculation, and calculations react to the information they get. Analysts are as of now appearing neural systems can be fooled into speculation an image of a turtle is really an image of a rifle and how a straightforward sticker on a stop sign can make an independent vehicle drive straight into a crossing point.

This sort of control isn’t just conceivable after AI is sent, however when it is being trained also, possibly enabling programmers to unleash a wide range of ruin without contacting the customer undertaking’s framework.

Engadget

While there is certainly no deficiency of faultfinders whose just objective is too harmed individuals and cause fear, the genuine prize in the hacking diversion is secret word location and all the robbery/blackmail potential outcomes that accompany it.

A year ago, the Stevens Establishment of Innovation made a program to show the power that AI conveys to this procedure. Scientists implanted various known secret key breaking programs with canny calculations that were trained to figure likely letter-number-exceptional character blends, and inside minutes they had gained in excess of 10 million LinkedIn passwords.

As more passwords are found, obviously, they can be utilized to train these learning calculations, so they become progressively viable after some time regardless of whether normal resistance measures, for example, routinely changing a secret key, are utilized.

Battling Back

As referenced above, be that as it may, AI is a two-way road. While it might enable programmers to run hovers around conventional security frameworks, it likewise makes current security frameworks significantly more powerful.

As indicated by the Protection Diary, Microsoft had the capacity to thwart an endeavored hack of its Sky blue cloud as of late when its AI-implanted security routine recognized a bogus interruption from a remote site. The endeavor would have gone unnoticed under before guidelines based conventions.

Yet AI’s capacity to learn and adjust to new dangers ought to drastically improve the undertaking’s capacity to secure itself even as information and framework push past the customary firewall into the cloud and the web of things. The majority of the top hyper-scale cloud suppliers are forcefully actualizing AI on their security impressions, since the sooner it is put vigorously, the more it will have learned when it experiences AI-engaged hacks.

In the event that anything, AI will probably accelerate this procedure while in the meantime evacuating a large number of the hands-on exercises from human administrators. Will this be something to be thankful for or a terrible thing for the present digital warriors?

Presumably, a blend of both as both the white caps and the blacks caps surrender the stray pieces of coding their assaults and protections and focus on the more key parts of present-day digital fighting.

Continue Reading

Trending

Copyright © 2019 MarknTech. Inc